Comprehensive storage, transportation and preserva

2022-09-19
  • Detail

Comprehensive storage, transportation and fresh-keeping of vegetables

in order to do a good job in the storage, transportation and fresh-keeping of vegetables, we must pay attention to the pre harvest and post harvest factors, and ignore any kind of factors, we cannot succeed in the storage, transportation and fresh-keeping. In the process of storage and transportation, people often ignore the influence of pre harvest factors, resulting in the failure of storage and transportation. Because pre harvest factors directly determine the quality of stored and transported products and the quality of supply. The control of post harvest factors directly determines the effect of preservation (anti-aging) and preservation. Some post harvest control measures can not only keep fresh (act on products, prevent aging), but also prevent corrosion (act on microorganisms, inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms); Other post harvest control measures only have a fresh-keeping effect (on products), or only have a preservative effect (on microorganisms). Over ripening, aging and decay of products are closely related, so preservation and preservation cannot be completely separated. Therefore, in order to do a good job in the storage, transportation and preservation of vegetables, we must pay comprehensive attention to the pre harvest and post harvest factors. The specific approach is to select high-quality products, pay attention to the two key issues of fresh-keeping and anti-corrosion, and take corresponding technical measures

I. pre harvest and post harvest factors and the storage resistance and disease resistance of vegetables

the storage resistance of vegetables refers to a characteristic that delays the changes of their own morphology, flavor, quality and nutrients during storage. The disease resistance of vegetables refers to the resistance of vegetables to pathogenic microorganisms. There is a close relationship between disease resistance and storage resistance

generally speaking; Vegetables with strong storage resistance also have strong resistance to diseases; Conversely, vegetables with weak disease resistance are generally not resistant to storage. Pre harvest factors have a great influence on the storage resistance and disease resistance of vegetables. The physiological characteristics of vegetables after harvest, including storage resistance and disease resistance, are formed under field growth conditions. Undoubtedly, the growth characteristics, field climate, soil conditions and management measures of different vegetables will have a direct or indirect impact on the quality and storage characteristics of vegetables. Therefore, if we only focus on the technical links in the storage or circulation process and ignore the prerequisite of field growth factors, it may also lead to serious losses. Because only normal physiological conditions and intact vegetables have real value for storage. Growth conditions not only affect the product quality, storage resistance and disease resistance of vegetables, but also affect the number of pathogenic microorganisms attached or latent on the surface of products, which is also an important factor related to storage. Pre harvest factors include biological factors, ecological factors, agricultural technology factors, etc. The influence of agricultural technology on fruits and vegetables is similar to that of ecological factors. They mainly determine the degree of established genetic expression of fruits and vegetables. Good storage materials should be the combination of high-quality fruit and vegetable varieties with storage resistance and reasonable agricultural technology, that is, the combination of improved varieties and methods, in order to obtain ideal products for storage

postharvest factors also have a great impact on the storage resistance and disease resistance of vegetables. Only by maintaining the slow life activities of the vegetable body and delaying the decay of its storage resistance and disease resistance can it be possible to extend the storage life. During the storage of fruits and vegetables, we should also control the environmental conditions, and control the development and changes of storage resistance and disease resistance by controlling the environmental conditions, including: ① control the appropriate low temperature; ② Control appropriate humidity; ③ Control appropriate gas composition; ④ Prevent mechanical injury; ⑤ Use preservative treatment, etc. Selecting good varieties and reasonable cultivation can obtain products with good storage resistance and disease resistance, which is the internal basis of storage. Then, during storage, the storage environmental conditions should be controlled at the most appropriate level, and the storage resistance should be delayed as much as possible, so as to help customers obtain UL yellow card or VDE certification mark, and the decay of disease resistance. In this way, it is possible to complete the task of vegetable storage

II. Comprehensive storage, transportation and fresh-keeping technology of vegetables

(I) pre harvest factors

1. Biological factors include species and varieties, rootstocks, field growth status, maturity, etc

2. ecological factors the ecological factors of vegetables include temperature, light, moisture, soil and geographical factors, such as longitude and latitude, terrain, altitude, etc

3. agricultural technology factors include fertilization, irrigation, plastic pruning, flower and fruit thinning, and the use of chemical agents

(II) direct and important pre harvest factors

1. Select suitable storage and transportation resistant varieties

2. Maturity each variety has its own suitable maturity for storage and transportation. If it is higher or lower than this maturity, the storage resistance and disease resistance of the product will be reduced

3. season and frost products in late autumn and before frost are resistant to storage and transportation, while products affected by frost are not resistant to storage and transportation

4. Special attention should be paid to pre harvest pest control and yield limitation in field disease management and yield limitation

5. Irrigation and rain stress that irrigation should be stopped 5-7 days before harvest, and rainy days cannot be harvested, and rainy products cannot be stored

(III) harvest

1. Harvest at the coldest time of the day

2. Put the collected products and transportation vehicles in a cool place in the shade

3. appropriate storage and transportation containers should be selected for storage and transportation packaging containers, so that the packaging can prevent the products from mechanical damage, which is conducive to temperature management and prevent the product from losing water, and is convenient for special treatment (for example, S02 fumigation can be used to control grape diseases)

4. Carefully select and package products carefully, carefully and lovingly

5. Prevent mechanical injury. Pay attention to prevent mechanical injury in all links, because the wound is an important way to cause microbial infection

(IV) management during transportation to the warehouse

1. Ventilation and shading during transportation, vehicles loaded with products should be covered with well ventilated covers to minimize heat damage and sunburn

2. ventilation and stacking. Pay attention to air circulation during stacking, and put air ducts in the stack if necessary

3. The products should be transported to the storage place as soon as possible. If the product is put into storage one day late, it is equivalent to being stored in the warehouse for 4 ~ 10 days

4。 The palletizing on the transport vehicle shall be firm to prevent mechanical injury

(V) storage and management

1. Temperature ① there is a warehouse with good heat insulation and temperature control. ② Lowering the storage temperature in advance is a new generation of environmental protection products that replace two-component PU. The low storage temperature reaches the required temperature. ③ Vegetables are pre cooled before storage, including water pre cooling, air pre cooling, vacuum pre cooling, ice pre cooling, etc. ④ Store in time to prevent staying outside for too long. ⑤ Choose suitable storage temperature. ⑥ Choose appropriate temperature detection methods, such as computer multipoint, among which the most promising combination is mixed lead halide perovskite detection, precision mercury thermometer detection, etc. ⑦ Stack reasonably, inside and outside the stack. 2. Emergency stop device: it can handle emergencies, and it should be conducive to air circulation. ⑧ Try to keep the temperature of all parts in the warehouse uniform and consistent to prevent sudden fluctuations in the temperature in the warehouse

2. Humidity ① choose the appropriate storage humidity. ② Reduce the temperature difference between the evaporator and the warehouse to prevent excessive frosting. ③ Humidifier can be used to increase humidity. ④ Dehumidifiers can be used to reduce humidity. ⑤ Ventilate and reduce humidity. ⑥ Add water or ice to the ground to increase humidity. ⑦ Use plastic packaging to maintain humidity

3. Gas composition ① there is a storage room with good air tightness and gas regulation. ② Choose suitable plastic film with good air and moisture permeability. ③ Select appropriate gas indicators. ④ Use gas conditioner. ⑤ Use physiological regulators. ⑥ Choose suitable plastic film controlled atmosphere methods, such as folded packaging, sealed packaging, pinhole film packaging, sealed packaging and regular ventilation, silicon window plastic bag packaging, plastic large tent storage, silicon window plastic large tent storage, plastic large tent coke molecular sieve controlled atmosphere storage, etc

4. preservation and fresh keeping ① using CTL preservative can control the storage diseases of pepper, kidney beans and tomatoes. ② Using CT - fruit and vegetable preservative fumigant can prevent the storage diseases of garlic bolt, winter melon, sweet potato, garlic, scallion and potato. ③ CT-A special preservative for garlic bolt can control the storage disease of garlic bolt

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI